Tag Archives: Health promotion

Thought of the day: Patient Orientated Research

15 Nov

What is patient orientated research? Sounds like a bit of a well-intentioned phrase coined to make researchers feel like they are doing something useful, whilst making patients feel like they’re at the centre of the universe. If you take off the cynic goggles however, patient orientated describes research that is answering a much needed question, that will ultimately help improve patient experience or quality of care. Now this is true public health in action, and as corny as that sounds, I think it’s important to keep the individuals in sight when working in public health.


Theory of Planned Behaviour

7 Jan

The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is possibly the most popular health behavioural model out there apparently. An individual’s intention to carry out a health behaviour is shaped by 3 things: attitude, social norms, and perceived behavioural control. Depending on these three factors, once enough intention is built up this is translated into actual behaviour.

Theory of Planned behaviour

Theory of Planned behaviour

ADV: It has been used extensively throughout social psychology as well as public health. It includes the all important consideration of social pressures et al on an individual’s behaviour. It gives an accurate prediction of behaviour in comparison to the other models

DISADV: it is a motivation model like the HBM and the PMT, meaning that intention is the key focus. In actual fact, there is such a thing called the Intention behaviour gap which signifies the difficulties in getting individuals to convert their intentions (I want to quit smoking) to the action (I will quit smoking, NOW!).


Protection Motivation Theory

7 Jan

The Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) is a follow on from the HBM, with the addition of self-efficacy. Protection motivation arises from a combination of two types of appraisal:

Threat appraisal

This is made up of perceived susceptibility and severity of the consequences of not following the proposed health behaviour, and is no different from the HBM in this respect.

Coping appraisal

This involves a combination of response appraisal and self appraisal. Response appraisal describes an individual’s belief of how effectively the proposed health behaviour will prevent bad health consequences. Self appraisal describes an individual’s belief in their ability to carry out the health behaviour successfully.

Protection motivation then leads to a coping response. This response may be adaptive (leads to desired health behaviour) or maladaptive (refusal to believe in proposed behaviour leads to inaction).

A bit confusing maybe, so here is a diagram:

Protection Motivation Theory

Protection Motivation Theory

ADV: It is an improvement on the HBM as it includes self-efficacy. It also describes the relationships between health beliefs and intentions. Additionally, it offers a good prediction of motivation

DISADV: It is very individualistic in approach and does not address social pressures that may influence behaviour


Health Belief Model

7 Jan

The Health Belief Model (HBM) is probably the most commonly heard of, it was the first attempt to categorise the determinants of health behaviour. It states that the willingness of an individual to take up a health intervention relies on five different things:

Perceived susceptibility to the outcome if intervention isn’t followed

Perceived severity of outcome if intervention isn’t followed

Perceived benefits of the intervention

Perceived barriers of the intervention

Cues to action (a final push to encourage action)

ADV: It is a useful framework to investigate what’s going on in terms of health behaviour.

DISADV: it doesn’t specify relationships between variables and ignores the crucial role ofbehavioural skills and control in performing behaviour.

E.g. Encouraging individuals to stop smoking

Perceived susceptibility to what might happen if  you don’t stop smoking (what is the probability of developing lung cancer etc)

Perceived severity of outcome if you don’t stop smoking (how bad is lung cancer?)

Perceived benefits of stopping smoking (better health and general well-being, sense of achievement)

Perceived barriers of stopping smoking (hard to quit when stressed, difficulty in not smoking in social situations where other people smoke

Cue to action (knowing someone who has quit or alternatively, who has gotten lung cancer, stopping quitting before having children etc)